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The jury is out on the desirability of the continued use of conventional surfactants. Surfactants were originally used to Enhance water solubility of water insoluble compounds, maintain formulary consistency and control viscosity. Must Enable spray solutions to adhere to target surfaces and reduce surface tension. Must Optimize biological efficacy and remove the cuticle wax layer of plant surfaces

But in recent times an increasing number of studies begin to show the adverse effects of the components used as surfactants. Here are a few examples:


  • Studies show that water loss through leaves can be as much as double its natural volume
  • Studies have shown that plants exposed to wax removing surfactants are much more vulnerable to sun, heat and chilling damage
  • Many surfactants (especially Anionic) are highly acidic and adversely affect soil pH
  • Many surfactants have severe ecological side effects
  • Some surfactants are toxic, carcinogenic or cause respiratory and other systemic diseases.



The ANODS-approach obviates all of these and contains only natural lipids, Chitosan and Vitamin E. Not only do each of these offer a variety of benefits to plants, but the ANODS entrap intended compounds and thereby offer a natural transport vehicle for these compounds. ANODS therefore becomes a natural surfactant with the following benefits:

  • It is amphiphilic and therefore has a wider compound solubility co-efficient
  • Adherence to plant surfaces is optimal
  • Because it targets cells biological efficacy is optimal, and therefore requires much reduced active ingredients and especially toxins
  • Enhances cellular delivery and hence overcomes drug resistance
  • It protects cuticle wax layers and consequently does not disrupt the essential protective function of cuticle wax
  • Importantly, plants’ natural water loss/retention ration is not disrupted.
  • Surface tension is automatically reduced due to amphiphilic nature of formula
  • It obviates the harmful effects of conventional surfactants.
  • ANODS can be further enhanced with ligands to reach target organelles or pathogens.
  • It has the capacity to reach sub-surface pathogens


These factors are important in the fight against the PSHB beetle and its symbiont Fusarium. Deep penetration is essential and particularly deep depositing of toxins to attack the beetle. Conventional toxins are not designed to penetrate, and even with conventional surfactants penetration is extremely limited. Various studies in the USA have shown disappointing results, to the extent that it is now suggested that the only solution is to destroy infected trees. We have shown the exact opposite where we found more than 10cm penetration within 24-hours -- regardless of bark structure.

We have attempted various insecticides, but found Cypermethrin to be the least ecologically harmful, but still highly effective. From the table below it will be evident that a 0,4% concentration of commercial Cypermethrin in ANODS-based Surfactant is some 300% more effective than a 20% commercial product without the ANODS-based Surfactant.



Pan African Farms

31A Unie Street


RSA 9585


Tel. +27 56 817 6489