OUR RATIONALE WITH DEVELOPMENT OF A SUITABLE FUNGICIDE IS AS FOLLOWS:
- The various barriers posed by fungi constitute one of the key exacerbating factors in phyto-pathogenic treatment. At the very entry-base antifungals are confronted by a cell wall that is generally regarded as impenetrable with nano-sized gaps between the protective matrixes and complicated by its hydrophobic nature. This wall is followed by a cell membrane that by its very nature performs a highly selective barrier function. It is believed that any successful anti-fungal preparation must first overcome these 2 barriers.
- Firstly, it is known that the wall’s fibrous matrix does have tiny gaps (± 30 nm), and molecules smaller than this, should go through. Secondly, we know that fungi make abundant use of lipids for its survival, and it is highly questionable whether this wall will starve its host of an essential and much needed supply of lipids. Thirdly, we know that the cell membranes have receptors. It makes no sense for it to have receptors when the wall prevents ligands from reaching the membrane. Abe and Hikari reported the crucial role and function of ergosterol in the cell membrane. Casadevall et.al confirmed the presence of a lipid pathway through the cell wall. They conclude with the following remarks: “ The finding of extracellular vesicles that presumably function as delivery vehicles for transporting and concentrating large molecular weight cargo across the cell wall indicates towards new areas of investigation”.
- A further consideration is toxicity: Much of the tree treatment will be in urban areas where there is every danger of child and animal exposure and other environmental damage. It was felt that it would be advantageous to focus in our selection of ingredients to natural or at least non-toxic substances wherever possible. The PSHB Fungicidal formula contains no toxic substances, and all ingredients are from natural sources.
- This confirms the viability of the ANODS developed by Pan African Farms to be used as vehicles to deliver vital cargo deeper into the cell core, where much damage can be done, especially if we consider that the vast majority of these vesicles are around 10 nanometers in diameter. This is done without invoking the retaliatory and defensive reaction from the outer layers.