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PANAF 3 is specially formulated to support plant defense mechanism in respect of heat, drought and cold resistance and other abiotic stresses.



PANAF 3 can be applied through conventional ground equipment, aerial application, or through properly equipped irrigation systems


PANAF 3 can be tank mixed with water.


Soil Application: 1L per hectare

Leaf Application: 1L per hectare


  1. Use 200 part water to 1 part PANAF 3 - 1:200.
  2. Put 200 parts water in a tank.
  3. Add 1 part PANAF 3 to water in tank.
  4. Mix the water with the PANAF 3.



Salycilic Acid



Protection against heat and drought damage.


Heat stress has an important environmental impact on cells and organisms. Membrane lipids have a pivotal function in temperature sensing and responses to heat stress.

Cells need “instruments” for perceiving the possibly stressful environmental or physiological changes in order to be able to transform the relevant physical parameters into a set of signals controlling enzyme activities, gene transcription, translation and post-translational modifications. The common stress-induced mechanisms include the activations of heat shock proteins, defense reactions and oxidative defense system, as well as metabolism regulation, membrane-lipid reorganization, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and proliferation control.


Research has shown that through the process of acclimation, plants acquire the ability to alter the lipid composition when exposed to heat stress. The deep penetrating capability of the ANODS developed by Pan African Farms offered the opportunity to deliver the desired lipids to cell membranes before exposure in order to help protect cells and consequently reduce cell damage. This was enhanced by the addition of Chitosan.


Chitosan is a powerful bio-stimulant that induces the natural defense response of plants. This induction of natural defense response includes over expression of different defense related hormones, genes and enzymes, increased accumulation of phenolic compounds, cell wall synthesis etc. Plants treated with Chitosan as biotic elicitor molecules have been shown to induce this innate immune response.

Exposure of plants to different biotic or a-biotic stresses lead to deregulation or disruption of electric transport chain and consequently give rise to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are considered as strong oxidizing and potentially harmful agents for the cells. Chitosan elevates important antioxidant enzymes involved in the scavenging of ROS.


This cocktail of natural ingredients has shown strong heat and drought protection, tolerance capabilities as well as coping and acclimation mechanisms.


  • ANODS penetrate through leaves offering a more effective, faster and more direct delivery of vital support chemicals than that sourced in the surrounding soil via roots.
  • There is clear confirmation that PANAF 3 increases various plant systems, and notably photosynthesis and thereby also Chlorophyll, ATP and energy.
  • PANAF 3 enhances plants’ innate defense mechanisms.
  • Because the formula comprises of only natural ingredients, it is not toxic
  • There is evidence that the PANAF 3 formula enhances water retention and therefore offers improved moisture efficiency.
  • There is conclusive evidence that the known temperature thresholds of plants are raised and consequently enhances its innate thermotolerance.
  • In this experiment the crop in volume increased by 29%. This is a significant increase and confirmation that the enhanced thermotolerance capacity of PANAF 3 also enhances crop size.






















































We have indicated above that 2015 and 2016 were the hottest years in recorded history, and conducted this experiment during a period where temperatures in the fortnight after treatment were excessive. Maximum temperatures during this period were consistently above 30°C, and 10 of the 14 days recorded temperatures were 34°C and higher. Thus, it can be expected as indicated in the graph in par.1.6 above, growth will be severely stunted.


The experiment started on 16 December 2015, where a portion of planted maize was identified and divided into strips where maize would be intermittently sprayed with PANAF.


Observations. The photo’s below are records of observations over a 45-day period from 16 December 2016 to 1 February 2016, and later of the actual harvesting day.



The series of photos below clearly shows the difference in plant growth, plant structure and plant health (eg Photosynthesis) during the 45-day period of these observations. Further, as it is on record that it did not rain during the entire period, plants displayed remarkable and distinctly superior moisture efficiency. This difference became clearly noticeable from day 32 onwards



CONTROL                               PANAF 3



CONTROL                               PANAF 3



Eventually total crop in the experimental group exceeded that of the control by 29%

CONTROL                               PANAF 3

Insect repellent effect after 45 days



CONTROL                               PANAF 3



CONTROL                               PANAF 3


It follows from the above information that abiotic stress, including heat and cold stress has devastatingly negative effects on plants, and consequently also food production. It is also evident that with the gradual climate shift there is every reason to intervene in a positive manner to help plants cope therewith.


We have shown that indeed there are effective coping mechanisms; we have shown that these mechanisms are part of a highly complex inner matrix, but simultaneously its coping needs are well defined and accessible; but we have also shown that in order to reach the inner depths of this coping mechanism there is a vital key, and that key is the ability to penetrate through an impenetrable barrier: foliar epidermis; we have shown that we hold that key through the liposomal delivery.


The results discussed here confirm that it is possible to help plants attain full thermotolerance, but it goes beyond this: it helps elevate plants’ innate defense mechanism; it helps plants acclimatize and elevate its response to abiotic stress.


Pan African Farms

31A Unie Street


RSA 9585


Tel. +27 56 817 6489